Scientific Publications


  • Pathogenicity of Different Betanodavirus RGNNV/SJNNV Reassortant Strains in European Sea Bass

Biasini, L.; Berto, P.; Abbadi, M.; Buratin, A.; Toson, M.; Marsella, A.; Toffan, A.; Pascoli, F. Pathogenicity of Different Betanodavirus RGNNV/SJNNV Reassortant Strains in European Sea Bass. Pathogens 2022, 11, 458. DOI: 10.3390/pathogens11040458


  • High-Resolution, 3D Imaging of the Zebrafish Gill-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GIALT) Reveals a Novel Lymphoid Structure, the Amphibranchial Lymphoid Tissue

Dalum A.S., Kraus A., Khan S., Davydova E., Rigaudeau D., Bjørgen H., López-Porras A., Griffiths G., Wiegertjes G.F., Koppang E.O., Salinas I., Boudinot P. and Rességuier J. (2021)  Front. Immunol. 12:769901. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.769901

  • Hemagglutinin protein of Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) activates the innate immune response via Toll-like receptor 2 signaling

José M. Rojas, Elena Pascual, Sean R. Wattegedera, Miguel Avia, César Santiago, Verónica Martín, Gary Entrican & Noemí Sevilla (2021) Hemagglutinin protein of Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) activates the innate immune response via Toll-like receptor 2 signaling, Virulence, 12:1, 690-703, DOI: 10.1080/21505594.2021.1882246

  • Diagnosis and Pathogenesis of Nairobi Sheep Disease Orthonairovirus Infections in Sheep and Cattle

Hartlaub J, Gutjahr B, Fast C, Mirazimi A, Keller M, Groschup MH. Viruses, 2021. DOI: 10.3390/v13071250

  • Cross-Reaction or Co-Infection? Serological Discrimination of Antibodies Directed against Dugbe and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Orthonairovirus in Nigerian Cattle

Hartlaub J, Daodu OB, Sadeghi B, Keller M, Olopade J, Oluwayelu D, Groschup MH. Viruses, 2021. DOI: 10.3390/v13071398

  • Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate–Adenosine Monophosphate Synthase (cGAS), a Multifaceted Platform of Intracellular DNA Sensing

Eloi R. Verrier and Christelle Langevin. Frontiers in Immunology, 2021. (VetBioNet partners involved: INRAE). DOI:

  • A New Look at Vaccine Strategies Against PPRV Focused on Adenoviral Candidates

José M. Rojas, Noemí Sevilla, and Verónica Martín. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 2021. (VetBioNet partners involved: INIA). DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2021.729879

  • Embryonic Trophectoderm Secretomics Reveals Chemotactic Migration and Intercellular Communication of Endometrial and Circulating MSCs in Embryonic Implantation

Alexandra Calle, Víctor Toribio, María Yáñez-Mó and Miguel Ángel Ramírez. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021. (VetBioNet partner involved: INIA). DOI: 10.3390/ijms22115638

  • Identification and Phenotype of MAIT Cells in Cattle and Their Response to Bacterial Infections

Matthew D. Edmans, Timothy K. Connelley, Siddharth Jayaraman, Christina Vrettou, Martin Vordermeier, Jeffrey Y. W. Mak, Ligong Liu, David P. Fairlie, Emmanuel Atangana Maze, Tiphany Chrun, Paul Klenerman, Sidonia B. G. Eckle, Elma Tchilian and Lindert Benedictus. Frontiers in Immunology, 2021. (VetBioNet partners involved: APHA, UEDIN). DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.627173

  • Deciphering Antibody Responses to Orthonairoviruses in Ruminants

Hartlaub J, Keller M, Groschup MH. Microorganisms, 2021. (VetBioNet partners involved: UNOTT, MRI). DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms9071493

  • A Trifecta of New Insights into Ovine Footrot for Infection Drivers, Immune Response, and Host-Pathogen Interactions

Blanchard AM, Staley CE, Shaw L, Wattegedera SR, Baumbach CM, Michler JK, Rutland C, Back C, Newbold N, Entrican G, Tötemeyer S. Infection and Immunity, 2021. (VetBioNet partners involved: UNOTT, MRI). DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00270-21

  • Experimental Challenge of Sheep and Cattle with Dugbe Orthonairovirus, a Neglected African Arbovirus Distantly Related to CCHFV

Hartlaub J, von Arnim F, Fast C, Mirazimi A, Keller M, Groschup MH. Viruses, 2021. (VetBioNet partner involved: FLI). DOI: 10.3390/v13030372

  • Non-Lethal Sequential Individual Monitoring of Viremia in Relation to DNA Vaccination in Fish–Example Using a Salmon Alphavirus DNA Vaccine in Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar

Catherine Collins, Katherine Lester, Jorge Del-Pozo and Bertrand Collet. Vaccines, 2021. (VetBioNet partners involved: INRAE, UEDIN). DOI: 10.3390/vaccines9020163

  • Viral pathogen-induced mechanisms to antagonize mammalian interferon (IFN) signaling pathway

José M. Rojas, Alí Alejo, Verónica Martín & Noemí Sevilla. Springer, 2021. (VetBioNet partner involved: INIA). DOI: 10.1007%2Fs00018-020-03671-z

  • Vaccination With Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing the Bluetongue Virus Subunits VP7 and VP2 Provides Protection Against Heterologous Virus Challenge

José Manuel Rojas, Diego Barba-Moreno, Miguel Avia, Noemí Sevilla and Verónica Martín. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 2021. (VetBioNet partner involved: INIA). DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2021.645561

  • Shuni Virus Replicates at the Maternal-Fetal Interface of the Ovine and Human Placenta

Judith Oymans, Lucien van Keulen, Guus M. Vermeulen, Paul J. Wichgers Schreur and Jeroen Kortekaas. Pathogens, 2021. (VetBioNet partner involved: ISX). DOI: 10.3390/pathogens10010017

  • Airway Administration of Flagellin Regulates the Inflammatory Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Raquel López-Gálvez , Isabelle Fleurot , Pablo Chamero , Sascha Trapp , Michel Olivier , Claire Chevaleyre , Céline Barc , Mickael Riou , Christelle Rossignol , Antoine Guillon ; Mustapha Si-Tahar , Tobias May , Pascal Barbry ; Andrea Bähr , Nikolai Klymiuk , Jean-Claude Sirard , and Ignacio Caballero. ATS Journals, 2021. (VetBioNet partner involved: ISX). DOI: 10.1165/rcmb.2021-0125OC

  • Type I and III IFNs produced by the nasal epithelia and dimmed inflammation are features of alpacas resolving MERS-CoV infection

Nigeer Te  Jordi Rodon, Maria Ballester, Mónica Pérez, Lola Pailler-García, Joaquim Segalés, Júlia Vergara-Alert, Albert Bensaid. Plos Pathogens. 2021. (VetBioNet partner involved: IRTA) DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009229

    • Mycobacterial Infection of Precision-Cut Lung Slices Reveals Type 1 Interferon Pathway Is Locally Induced by Mycobacterium bovis but Not M. tuberculosis in a Cattle Breed

    Aude Remot, Florence Carreras, Anthony Coupé, Émilie Doz-Deblauwe, Maria L. Boschiroli, John A. Browne, Quentin Marquant, Delphyne Descamps, Fabienne Archer, Abraham Aseffa, Pierre Germon, Stephen V. Gordon and Nathalie Winter. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 2021. (VetBioNet partners involved: INRAE, NUID-UCD) DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2021.696525

    • Immunization With Bovine Herpesvirus-4-Based Vector Delivering PPRV-H Protein Protects Sheep From PPRV Challenge

    Daniel Rodríguez-Martín, José Manuel Rojas, Francesca Macchi, Valentina Franceschi, Luca Russo, Noemí Sevilla,  Gaetano Donofrío and Verónica Martín. Frontiers in Immunology, 2021. (VetBioNet partner involved: INIA) DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.705539

    • High throughput analysis of MHC-I and MHC-DR diversity of Brazilian cattle populations

    Deepali Vasoya, Priscila Silva Oliveira, Laura Agundez Muriel, Thomas Tzelos, Christina Vrettou, W. Ivan Morrison, Isabel Kinney Ferreira de Miranda Santos, Timothy Connelley. Wiley Online Library, 2021. (VetBioNet partner involved: UEDIN) DOI: 10.1111/tan.14339

    • Genome Evolution of Two Genetically Homogeneous Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Strains During Passages in vitro and ex vivo in the Presence of a Mutagenic Nucleoside Analog

    Liliana L. Cubas-Gaona, Alexandre Flageul, Céline Courtillon, Francois-Xavier Briand, Maud Contrant, Stephanie Bougeard, Pierrick Lucas, Hélène Quenault, Aurélie Leroux, Alassane Keita, Michel Amelot, Béatrice Grasland, Yannick Blanchard, Nicolas Eterradossi, Paul Alun Brown and Sébastien Mathieu Soubies. Frontiers in Macrobiology, 2021. (VetBioNet partner involved: ANSES)  DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.678563

    • Comparison of three air samplers for the collection of four nebulized respiratory viruses – Collection of respiratory viruses from air

    Jasmin S. KutterDennis de MeulderTheo M. BestebroerArd MuldersRon A.M. FouchierSander Herfst. Wiley Online Library, 2021 (VetBioNet partner involved: Erasmus MC) DOI: 10.1111/ina.12875

    • SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are transmitted through the air between ferrets over more than one meter distance

    Jasmin S. Kutter, Dennis de Meulder, Theo M. Bestebroer, Pascal Lexmond, Ard Mulders, Mathilde Richard, Ron A. M. Fouchier, Sander Herfst. Nature Communications, 2021 (VetBioNet partner involved: Erasmus MC) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-21918-6

    • Long-Term Protection and Serologic Response of European SeaBass Vaccinated with a Betanodavirus Virus-Like Particle Produced in Pichia pastoris

    Sofie Barsøe, Anna Toffan, Francesco Pascoli, Ansgar Stratmann, Tobia Pretto, Andrea Marsella, Mériem Er-Rafik, Niccolò Vendramin, Niels J. Olesen, Dagoberto Sepúlveda and Niels Lorenzen. Vaccines 2021, (VetBioNet partner involved: IZSVe) DOI:


    • Susceptibility of pike Esox lucius to VHSV and IHNV and potential transmission to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    J. Cabon, F. Almeras, M. Baud, L. Pallandre, T. Morin, L. Louboutin. DAO, 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: INRAE).

    DOI: 10.3354/dao03474

    • Sheep and Cattle Are Not Susceptible to Experimental Inoculation with Hazara Orthonairovirus, a Tick-Borne Arbovirus Closely Related to CCHFV

    Hartlaub J, von Arnim F, Fast C, Somova M, Mirazimi A, Groschup MH, Keller M. Microorganisms, 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: FLI). DOI:10.3390/microorganisms8121927

    • Experimental Infection of Cattle with SARS-CoV-2
    Ulrich L, Wernike K, Hoffmann D, Mettenleiter TC, Beer M. Experimental Infectious Deseases, 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: FLI). DOI: 10.3201/eid2612.203799
    • A Systematic Evaluation of High-Throughput Sequencing Approaches to Identify Low-Frequency Single Nucleotide Variants in Viral Populations

    King DJ, Freimanis G, Lasecka-Dykes L, Asfor A, Ribeca P, Waters R, King DP, Laing E. Viruses, 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: TPI). DOI:

    • Activation of OX40 and CD27 Costimulatory Signalling in Sheep through Recombinant Ovine Ligands

    Rojas JM, Alejo A, Avia JM, Rodríguez-Martín D, Sánchez C, Alcamí A, Sevilla N, Martín V. Vaccines, 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: INIA). DOI:

    • The Intrinsic Biological Identities of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Coatings: Unexplored Territory for Combinatorial Therapies

    Mulens-Arias V, Rojas JM, Barber DF. Nanomaterials, 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: INIA). DOI:10.3390/nano10050837

    • Bovine Herpesvirus-4-Vectored Delivery of Nipah Virus Glycoproteins Enhances T Cell Immunogenicity in Pigs

    Pedrera M, Macchi F, McLean RK, Franceschi V, Thakur N, Russo L, Medfai L, Todd S, Tchilian EZ, Audonnet JC, Chappell K, Isaacs A, Watterson D, Young PR, Marsh GA, Bailey D, Graham SP, Donofrio G. Vaccines, 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: TPI) DOI: 10.3390/vaccines8010115

    • Defining immune correlates during latent and active chlamydial infection in sheep

    Sean R. Wattegedera, Morag Livingstone, Stephen Maley, Mara Rocchi, Susan Lee, Yvonne Pang, Nick M. Wheelhouse, Kevin Aitchison, Javier Palarea-Albaladejo, David Buxton, David Longbottom & Gary Entrican. Veterinary Research, 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: MRI). DOI: 10.1186/s13567-020-00798-6

    • Reverse Genetics System for Shuni Virus, an Emerging Orthobunyavirus with Zoonotic Potential

    Judith Oymans, Paul J. Wichgers Schreur, Sophie van Oort, Rianka Vloet, Marietjie Venter, Gorben P. Pijlman, Monique M. van Oers  and Jeroen Kortekaas. Viruse, 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: WBVR). DOI: 10.3390/v12040455

    • Improving Tumor Retention of Effector Cells in Adoptive Cell Transfer Therapies by Magnetic Targeting

    Laura Sanz-Ortega, José Manuel Rojas and Domingo F. Barber. Pharmaceutics, 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: INIA). DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12090812

    • Decrypting the Origin and Pathogenesis in Pregnant Ewes of a New Ovine Pestivirus Closely Related to Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Miaomiao Wang , Enrica Sozzi , José Alejandro Bohórquez, Mònica Alberch , Joan Pujols, Guillermo Cantero , Alessandra Gaffuri, Davide Lelli, Rosa Rosell, Albert Bensaid, Mariano Domingo, Lester Josue Pérez, Ana Moreno and Llilianne Ganges. Viruses, 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: Erasmus IRTA). DOI: 10.3390/v12070775

    • SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted via contact and via the air between ferrets

    M. RichardA. Kok D. de MeulderT. M. BestebroerM. M. LamersN. M. A. OkbaM. Fentener van VlissingenB. RockxB. L. HaagmansM. P. G. KoopmansR. A. M. FouchierS. Herfst. Nature Communications 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: Erasmus MC)  DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-17367-2

    • Efficacy Assessment of Newly-designed Filtering Facemasks during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic

    Bob BoogaardAli TasJoep NijssenFreek BroerenJohn van der Dobbelsteen, Vincent Verhoeven, Jip PluimSing Dekker, Eric Snijder, Martijn van Hemert, Sander Herfst. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: Erasmus MC) DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2020.07.0424  

    • Ex vivo rescue of recombinant very virulent IBDV using a RNA polymerase II driven system and primary chicken bursal cells

    Liliana L. Cubas-Gaona, Romane Trombetta, Céline Courtillon, Kai Li, Xiaole Qi, Xiaomei Wang, Sofiane Lotmani, Alassane Keita, Michel Amelot, Nicolas Eterradossi & Sébastien Mathieu Soubies. Nature publishing group, 2020 (VetBioNet partner involved: ANSES) DOI:

    • Precision cut lung slices: a novel versatile tool to examine host–pathogen interaction in the chicken lung

    K. J. Bryson, D. Garrido, M. Esposito, G. McLachlan, P. Digard, C. Schouler, R. Guabiraba, S. Trapp, L. Vervelde. BMC Veterinary Research, 2020. (VetBioNet partners involved: UEDIN, INRAE) DOI:

    • Modulation of lethal HPAIV H5N8 clade infection in AIV pre-exposed mallards

    S. Koethe, L. Ulrich, R. Ulrich, S. Amler, A. Graaf, T.C. Harder, C. Grund, T. C. Mettenleiter, F. J. Conraths, M. Beer,  A. Globig. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2020. (VetBioNet partner involved: FLI) DOI:


    • Potential Role of Different Fish Species as Vectors of Koi Herpesvirus (CyHV-3) Infection

    Marek Matras, Magdalena Stachnik, Ewa Borzym, Joanna Maj-Paluch and Michał Reichert. Journal of Veterinary Research, 2019. (VetBioNet partner involved: PIWET). DOI: 10.2478/jvetres-2019-0069

    • Allelic nomenclature for the duplicated MHC class II DQ genes in sheep

    Keith T. Ballingall, Kara Dicks, Panoraia Kyriazopoulou & Lynne Herrmann-Hoesing. Immunogenetics, 2019. (VetBioNet partners involved: MRI, UEDIN). DOI: 10.1007/s00251-018-1096-9

    • Bovine endometrial MSC: mesenchymal to epithelial transition during luteolysis and tropism to implantation niche for immunomodulation

    Alexandra Calle, Soraya López-Martín, Marta Monguió-Tortajada, Francesc Enric Borràs, María Yáñez-Mó & Miguel Ángel Ramírez. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 2019. (VetBioNet partner involved: INIA). DOI: 10.1186/s13287-018-1129-1

    • SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted via contact and via the air between ferrets

    M. RichardA. Kok D. de MeulderT. M. BestebroerM. M. LamersN. M. A. OkbaM. Fentener van VlissingenB. RockxB. L. HaagmansM. P. G. KoopmansR. A. M. FouchierS. Herfst. Nature Communications 2020 (VetBioNet partners involved: Erasmus MC)  DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-17367-2

    • Blocking transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in llamas by vaccination with a recombinant spike protein

    J. Rodon, N. M. A. Okba, N. Te, B. Van Dieren, B. Bosch, A. Bensaid, J. Segalés, B. L. Haagmans, J. Vergara-Alert. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2019. (VetBioNet partners involved: IRTA, Erasmus MC) DOI: 

    • Detection of MERS-CoV antigen on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded nasal tissue of alpacas by immunohistochemistry using human monoclonal antibodies directed against different epitopes of the spike protein

    A. Haverkamp, B. J.Bosch, I. Spitzbarth, A. Lehmbecker, N. Te, A. Bensaid, J. Segalés, W. Baumgärtner. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 2019. (VetBioNet partner involved: IRTA) DOI: 

    • Highly multiplexed quantitative PCR-based platform for evaluation of chicken immune responses

    D. Borowska, R. Kuo, R. A. Bailey, K. A. Watson, P. Kaiser, L. Vervelde, M. P. Stevens. Plose One, 2019. (VetBioNet partner involved: UEDIN) DOI: 

    • Immunological Homeostasis at the Ovine Placenta May Reflect the Degree of Maternal Fetal Interaction

    S. R. Wattegedera, L. E. Doull, M. I. Goncheva, N. M. Wheelhouse, D. M. Watson, J. Pearce, J. Benavides, J. Palarea-Albaladejo, C. J. McInnes, K. Ballingall, G. Entrican. Frontiers in Immunology, 2019. (VetBioNet partners involved: MRI, UEDIN) DOI:

    • Characterisation of major histocompatibility complex class IIa haplotypes in an island sheep population

    K. L. Dicks, J. M. Pemberton, K. T. Ballingall. Immunogenetics, 2019. (VetBioNet partners involved: UEDIN, MRI) DOI: 

    • Chicken endothelial cells are highly responsive to viral innate immune stimuli and are susceptible to infections with various avian pathogens

    A. Lion, E. Esnault, E. Kut, V. Guillory, L. Trapp-Fragnet, S. M. Soubies, N. Chanteloup, A. Niepceron, R. Guabiraba, D. Marc, N. Eterradossi, S. Trapp, P. Quéré. Avian Pathology, 2019. (VetBioNet partners involved: INRAE, ANSES) DOI: 


    • High sensitivity of domestic pigs to intravenous infection with HEV

    L. Dähnert, M. Eiden, J. Schlosser, C. Fast, C. Schröder, E. Lange, A. Gröner, W. Schäfer, M. H. Groschup. BMC Veterinary Research, 2018. (VetBioNet partner involved: FLI) DOI: 

    • Adenovirus as Tools in Animal Health

    J. M. Rojas, N. Sevilla, V. Martín. IntechOpen, 2018. (VetBioNet partner involved: INIA) DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.79132

    • Iberian pig mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from dermal skin, abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissues, and peripheral blood: in vitro characterization and migratory properties in inflammation

    A. Calle, C. Barrajón-Masa, E. Gómez-Fidalgo, M. Martín-Lluch, P. Cruz-Vigo, R. Sánchez-Sánchez, M. Á. Ramírez. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 2018. (VetBioNet partner involved: INIA) DOI: 

    • IPD-MHC: nomenclature requirements for the non-human major histocompatibility complex in the next-generation sequencing era

    G. Maccari, J. Robinson, R. E. Bontrop, N. Otting, N. G. De Groot, C. Ho, K. T. Ballingall, S. G. E. Marsh, J. A. Hammond. Immunogenetics, 2018. (VetBioNet partners involved: TPI, MRI) DOI:

    • Immunophenotyping of Sheep Paraffin-Embedded Peripheral Lymph Nodes

    E. Melzi, M. S. Rocchi, G. Entrican, M. Caporale, M. Palmarini. Frontiers in Immunology, 2018. (VetBioNet partner involved: MRI) DOI: 


    • Intramuscular DNA Vaccination of Juvenile Carp against Spring Viremia of Carp Virus Induces Full Protection and Establishes a Virus-Specific B and T Cell Response

    C. W. E. Embregts, D. Rigaudeau, T. Veselý, D. Pokorová, N. Lorenzen, J. Petit, A. Houe, M. Dauber, H. Schütze, P. Boudinot, G. F. Wiegertjes, M. Forlenza. Frontiers in Immunology, 2017. (VetBioNet partners involved: WBVR, INRAE, FLI) DOI: 

    • Propagation and titration of infectious bursal disease virus, including non-cell-culture-adapted strains, using ex vivo-stimulated chicken bursal cells

    S. M. Soubies, C. Courtillon, M. Abed, M. Amelot, A. Keita, A. Broadbent, S. Härtle, B. Kaspers, N. Eterradossi. Avian Pathology, 2017. (VetBioNet partners involved: ANSES, TPI) DOI: